What if you asked for questions from your students instead of just answers.
As I was reading, “Differentiating Instruction in a Whole-Group Setting” by Betty Hollas I came across the same thought. “The question is more important than the answer” (Hollas 35). Hollas suggested that teachers remember differentiation is about being student centred and being student centered means, “the focus is off you and on your students. It means students are doing something, as opposed to just sitting and listening” (Hollas 34). She asked us to reflect on how we use questioning in the classroom. She also asked:
~ How many questions do you as a teacher ask in a class?
~ How many questions do your students ask in a class?
Research by Kagan (1999) suggests that, “teachers ask 80 questions each hour” and in the same time period students ask two (Hollas 35).
Good questioning is an important skill in a teacher’s tool box. It gives students the opportunity to engage, “helps them to construct meaning, and develops higher levels thinking skills” (Hollas 34). Being cognizant of Bloom’s taxonomy will not only help you to engage your students, but it will model how to ask questions. If you take the time to encourage students to ask questions, it gets them actively involved in the class and develops a shared sense of ownership. Hollas also notes that, “when the students are the ones coming up with the questions, they’re automatically differentiating themselves” (35). It means listening carefully and creating an environment in which students have various ways to ask their questions. If you listen carefully, student’s questions will reveal their interests and how and at what level they are processing the information.
The following are a few strategies to add to your Questioning tool box.
1. In Biology class, each student wrote their name on a recipe card and handed in to me. One of the ways that we use the cards is when we are reviewing or correcting. All cards begin face down in a pile and as I ask a question or the students do, we turn over a name. That person is responsible for attempting to answer the question. If they do, their name gets moved into a new pile (on my right). Because they have answered correctly, these students are now in charge of being ready to expand, clarify or give examples that are relevant to a question that is answered by another student. Now if the original student is unsure of the answer to the question, their name goes into a new pile (on my left). They will be asked another question and must get one correct before their name gets moved to the pile on my right. They can volunteer an answer for a new question before I draw another name. Once everyone has answered correctly or worked through an answer, then start again.
~ I have noticed that my wait time improves because I take the time to ask the question and look around first before I draw the card. The students, even the ones that can’t wait to answer the questions, are respectful of the wait time because they need to listen carefully to hear the question and be able to give it their best try. It is also a great way to include all students, even the quiet ones, because they all know that everyone is part of the game.
~ We have added variations to this by using it as a review at the end of the class. The name that is drawn has to ask a review question.
~ Other variations inlcude making notes on the card for tracking. (See Hollas 39)
2. Hollas (37) suggests the idea of a parking lot for questions. Students have a parking lot graphic on a piece of paper, each student can then write down any questions that they have about the current concept on the question page. At the end of the class, you can address the questions. Hollas also suggests that you could use this for the entire class and students add to the poster during the unit.
3. Wait Time Strategies: Students all process information at different rates. Wait time will help all students deepen understanding when they respond. Hollas explains, “often boys need more wait time because they have less background knowledge and more limited vocabulary. Often English language learners need additional time to process thoughts first in their own language and then to translate” as well as learning disabled students (39). Hollas also points out that the other end of the spectrum benefits as well:
“It may surprise you to know that retrieval rates and intelligence are not linked. Sometimes those highly able students in your room have neural networks that are much denser, and their thoughts and responses are more complex (Kingore, 2004). If you call only on the students whose hands are up in the air first, you and your class will miss the deeper thoughts of some of these students.” ( Hollas 39)
Moreover, if you don’t wait for students to respond, it will form a habit and students will simply learn that it is easier to wait for you to answer than for them to try. Hollas (38) suggests considering these ideas to increase your wait time. Give students 5-10 seconds to think before they respond. Use random selection. Explain to the class that half the hands must be up before you will select someone. Use the hands down method, everyone is expected to try and answer. Not only do students suggest an answer, but they explain their thought process to get to the answer. (I think the last statement is important for students to role model for each other because it may give other students an idea of how that student remembers information. The explanation may include a study tip that other students can try. It also gives perspective. For example, some of the academic students have to work really hard and use specific strategies to learn the info, it’s not just because they are smart.)
4. In class we have tried multiple variations of the think-pair-share strategy. After I have asked a question, I will encourage students to think about it by themselves for 30-60 seconds. Sometimes this includes writing it down. Next they get to share it with someone at their table. Then the team can share their answer with the class. We have also added another sharing step. Students have to get up and move around the room and share their idea with others. (Works well for Kinesthetic and Interpersonal learners) Then when we reconvene students share the best of the ideas that they have heard. Often the students who are willing to talk with highlight that they thought student A had a great idea. This has often brought student A out of their shell and they have, in some cases, become more willing to share. The positive feedback between students is important in building the atmosphere of your classroom. It also leads to interesting discussions between students that can be worked into the lesson.
5. We often use the last few minutes of class to review the current day’s material. Sometimes individual students lead the review by asking open ended questions. Other days, each student brainstorms questions relevant to the day or unit and writes them down. They then have 2-3 minutes to move around the room and challenge other students. When the pair of students meet, they quickly take turns asking their questions. If they get it wrong, they then sign the other person’s paper. At the end of the time you can take a quick look at the questions that have the most signatures. It is great feedback for you as to which topics need to be revisited.
6. Role Model: Don’t forget to verbalize your thinking processes to the students be it for questioning or for study strategies. For example, Hollas explains that “good readers are always asking questions while reading. They’re engaged and active . . . The ability to generate questions is the key to higher levels of learning” (36). Consider sharing your thoughts as you read or have students share their thoughts with each other.
While this is by no means an extensive listing of questioning strategies, I do hope that you have reflected on the ways that you use questioning in your class. Feel free to leave a comment below sharing questioning strategies that have worked for you.
Hollas, Betty. Differentiating Instruction in a Whole-group Setting: Taking the Easy First Steps into Differentiation, Grades 7-12. Peterborough, N.H.: Crystal Springs, 2007. Print.